PODC’s administrative functions originate from Peter Drucker’s neoclassical theory. For neoclassical theory, the four basic functions of the administrator are PODCs: planning, organizing, directing, and controlling → administrative routine .
The four basic functions constitute the administrative process , which goes beyond the administrative cycle, since it is dynamic, interactive and cyclical .
The 4 elements can be understood from a procedural approach , in which the elements are considered together. And they can also start from a functional approach , in which each of the 4 elements is a function of the administrator, which is part of their administrative routine .
Directing is to set goals – Results Display – and operating scope: p laneando, or rganizando, d irigindo and c ontrolando people and resources. PODCs are administrative functions: the parts of the administrative process .
The administrative process is a sequence of successive functions ; it is a way of doing activities; it is how management achieves its objectives (effectively).
The functions PODC are part of the administrative process and are interrelated. The ultimate goal is to achieve efficient and effective results. Efficiency is achieved by allocating the right resources, in the right places, in the right way.
The administrative process is cyclical and provoked, there is a sequence:
→ Planning → Organization → Management → Control → Planning
The process is cyclical (repeated), dynamic (possibility of feedback – return to a previous point) and interactive ( flexible , interacts and adjusts to the environment). From this perspective, the administrative process does not have a defined beginning or end.
The administrative process can have a procedural or functional approach.
Administrative process, in which PODC (planning, organization, direction and control) are the steps of a process that must produce a result .
Characteristics of the administrative process, from the procedural perspective : continuity (the process is cyclical – it does not have a defined beginning and end , since the process is continuous and cyclical), dynamics, flexibility (associated with the ability to adapt – action and feedback) ), organicity (ability to adapt to different scenarios, same administrative process, but that adapts to the context), interactivity (between PODC activities, each activity interacts with the others), systematization (activities always occur in the same way, following rules and pre-established rules), intra-activity (within each process, there are activities that are subdivided into others).
According to the functional approach, the parts that make up the administrative process, namely PODC: Planning, Organization, Management and Control, are the functions of the administrator . Planning function, organization function, management function and control function. These are administrative routines .
Understanding administrative functions separately is the functional approach. But, it should be noted that these functions can be separated, but not isolated.
It is possible to understand each function individually.
Administrator roles – Functional approach
The functions of the Administration are the same regardless of the context , that is, they do not vary according to the hierarchical level of the company or the type of organization. Planning, organization, management and control are always present in any sector, type of company, etc. It is the job of the administrator: PODC.
It is the process of setting goals and adequate means to achieve these goals. Planning is defining an end and establishing the means to achieve the final objective. Planning establishes the routes of action.
Planning involves defining the mission, values and principles, the way of acting, the vision, the strategies and the objectives of the company.
An administrator who decides to expand the company’s operations, open branches and set goals for the coming years is exercising the planning function.
It is the planning of objectives and strategies to achieve them. Formulate goals and the means to achieve them.
It is the basic function of the administrative process: depending on the planning, the other 3 functions are performed.
Planning concept – Chiavenato: process of setting goals and defining the way (means) to achieve them.
Planning is a process , a sequence of steps, that aims to achieve a goal and sets out how this goal will be achieved. Purposes and means: objectives and routes of action. Planning is a strategy , as it defines the best course of action towards the goal. Objectives and methods .
Planning is not an isolated activity or simply a task, planning is a chain of activities. The end result of the planning process is the plan: ends (objectives) and means (methods).
Planning is the initial step (however, in the organization the process is cyclical and there is no definite beginning or end). Planning reduces uncertainty and increases the chances of success . Planning deals with the future (does not guess the future), deals with predictions, because the present can influence the future. The goal of planning is to make the organization proactive.
Planning is not an isolated act. The planning process itself is more important than your end product ( the plan ). The idea is not to predict the future, but to indicate how decisions in the present can influence the future of the organization. During the planning effort, the organization recognizes its limits and competencies and establishes strategies, which may or may not work. The planning process is more important than the final plan.
- Define your goals: where you want to go;
- Determine the current situation: situation of the organization;
- Develop premises (possibilities) about the future: description of alternatives and possible events;
- Analyze and choose between alternatives;
- Implement the plan and evaluate the result.
Advantages of planning: it offers a North for the organization; Helps reinforce synergy between efforts; defines the control parameters (which occurs in the control function); helps in motivation; It helps in the self – knowledge of the company (skills, limitations and objectives, for example).
To define the path, it is necessary to know where to go.
- Objective: it is the desired situation; where you want to go. The objectives must be broken down and quantified in goals. The objective is the result.
- Objective: it is the quantification of the objective, the development of the objective. You can divide the objectives into goals. The objective is to quantify the result. It is less subjective and more quantitative.
Planning function levels:
Each level has different scopes, risks and reasoning. Planning levels are related to administrator performance levels.
- Strategic: high complexity, long-term focus (4 years). Global, general objectives, strategic guidelines, with a strong vision of the external environment. It defines the business, the mission, the vision and the organizational values. Make the strategic diagnosis, with internal and external analysis (SWOT matrix). Formulates strategies, defines implementation and defines control methods. Strategic planning is related to the organization’s adaptation to uncertainty, it is future-oriented, it involves the entire organization (it is comprehensive), it is a process of consensus building, it is a form of organizational learning. Focus on the entire company, long-term and global and generic objectives. It can also be called the institutional level. It is the broadest level, it makes up the entire organization, it deals with high risk, it establishes guidelines. It is about vision, mission and values. A mistake at the strategic level affects the entire organization.
- Tactical : it is the intermediate level , with less complexity than the strategic level and greater than the operational level, it covers departments, with a focus on the medium term. Medium and medium term risk (2 years). Tactical planning considers strategic planning guidelines and determines specific objectives for each unit or department. Connect the two ends. It operates in the intermediary environment of the departments, which are under the president and the directors of the companies. Focus on a department, medium term and detailed objectives. also
- Operational: low complexity, short-term focus (1 year). Manage a single task or activity. It is day-to-day planning, task by task. Operational planning considers both strategic and tactical planning to determine the specific actions required for each activity or task. The objectives of operational planning are more detailed and specific. Focus on tasks and activities, short-term and more detailed objectives. Task-related: Deploying strategic and tactical planning into achievable tasks.
It can be said that strategic planning is developed in tactical planning and that this, in turn, is developed in operational planning. The planning levels are interdependent and interrelated; Each level has a deadline, focus, and scope.
Business, mission, vision and values:
It is part of strategic planning . It is the strategic reference : the definition of the identity of the organization. What is the organization and what is its field of action? The business. What is the organization’s raison d’être? The mission. What is the purpose of the organization? Your vision of the future. What are the beliefs and principles of the organization? The values.
- Business : area of operation, type of activity of the organization, main activities of the organization. Performance. It is the most objective aspect of the company.
- Mission : more subjective element: the reason for being of the organization, the reason for existing. The mission seeks to motivate its employees. It is the largest function of the organization. Eg: “generate value”. Mission is not static, mission is dynamic, just as planning is dynamic and flexible. The mission includes the company’s business, it is the starting point, it is the present, it identifies “who we are, what we do”, it is a guide, it focuses on the present for the future.
- Vision : it is the vision of the future , it defines the “great plan”, where the company wants to go, how it sees itself in the future, what is the desired destination and what is the general direction. Vision is a more general goal of the future, which is part of strategic planning. Vision is a kind of inspiration. The vision can indicate objectives and goals for the future (for example, being the best in the business in 5 years). The vision includes the entrepreneurial dream, indicates where you want to go, projects “what we want to be”, the vision is inspiring, it focuses on the future.
- Values : they are beliefs , basic attitudes to live together, principles of organization. Values drive strategies: no value, no business. Eg: sustainability.
The organization is the administrative function that is related to the assignment of tasks and their organization: grouping of tasks, assignment to teams or work departments, allocation of the necessary resources to carry out tasks by teams and departments. Organizing is assigning people and resources. It defines who does what, who will order whom, how it will be done and with what resources.
The organization involves technical, commercial, financial, accounting, etc. Definition of how the organization will work: who will do what and with what.
The administrative function of the organization distributes the tasks , authorities and resources of the organization. Design the work, allocate resources and coordinate activities.
In the organization phase, people and resources are allocated to achieve the objectives. The entire organization is based on defined planning and objectives.
Organizing is the process of assigning people and resources to achieve the previously planned objective.
Key concepts of the organization:
Division of labor and coordination are the two key concepts of the organization’s function. Organization is a process (not a task or activity). The organization implies coordination and control.
- Division of labor: Task specialization makes the individual more productive, saving time. Increased productivity → produces more in less time. The higher the degree of specialization, the higher the productivity. Maximum productivity is achieved at a specific level of experience. The degree of specialization increases productivity to some extent; beyond this point, there is a drop in productivity (worker alienation, demotivation). In the division of labor, each individual is responsible for a part of the process.
- Coordination: process of integration of the different activities developed in each department, to achieve the desired results. Integrate and harmonize activities (as in an orchestra). Tasks overlap in an organized (coordinated) way to achieve the result. Coordination is strongly linked to the concept of organization, because organizing is coordinating efforts.
- Mutual adjustment: more intuitive and informal form of coordination (based on dialogue);
- Direct supervision: the supervisor defines what is expected of each employee and supervises the execution. It has a more formal appearance with the presence of a supervisor. The coordinator closely monitors the execution of tasks, this is the most common strategy in organizations;
- Standardization of work processes: determines a work logic, followed by all (for example, assembly line). The process is standardized, people do not need to see the whole. The work is usually repetitive to allow this type of standardization;
- Standardization of results: the results are standardized, a clear final objective on how to achieve a certain quantity or quality. The team operates to achieve the result, which is standardized (eg, goal setting);
- Standardization of skills: you need workers with a high level of knowledge and skills, everyone knows the task very well. Every professional already has the skills and knows what to do. There is little need for monitoring and evaluation (eg, Medical Board);
Types of organization – organizational structure:
The organizational structure can be informal (eg, Friendships) and formal (represented in an organizational chart), one influencing the other. Each organization has an informal structure, based on affinity relationships, for example. In the formal structure, represented by the organization chart , there is the division of labor, the supervisory relationship, the communication channels, the main subdivisions and the hierarchical levels. Only the formal structure is represented in the organization chart. The formal structure deals with labor relations. The organization chart is a skeleton. Hierarchy: vertical direction; areas of operation – horizontal direction.
Authority relationship : set of orders and instructions transmitted by bosses and managers to subordinates. It is linked to the hierarchy. They are related to the organizational chart format.
- linear: pyramid format, centralized decision, linear or single authority, formal linear communication. Advantages: clear definition of authority and responsibility; Simple and easy to understand structure, well defined hierarchical levels. Disadvantages: excessive centralization (generalist leaders, autocracy); indirect and time consuming communications (subject to interference); It can hinder the growth of the organization. It works best in small businesses.
- functional: decentralized authority, based on the principle of specialization. Diluted (divided) authority, direct communication, technical supervision. Advantages: management experience, direct, fast and uninterrupted communications, decentralization of decisions. Disadvantages: various authorities, there may be contradiction, they do not have an overview, it can generate conflicts.
- Personal – Advisors help advise superiors on market trends, methods and management models. They have no official authority, they only have an advisory role. More complex authority structure. The authority of the personnel is relative, advises and makes a technical opinion. It allows decentralizing decisions. Personnel have no authority over the production line as they are an advisor and provide advice. The staff does not have a hierarchical relationship with the directors or with the production line.
While authority is a right , responsibility is a duty . The authority is the formal right to allocate people and resources, according to the office. The responsibility is the obligation to answer for their actions. Both concepts are directly proportional: the greater the authority, the greater the responsibility.
Command: it presupposes the existence of a superior and a subordinate, in which there is a command relationship, since there is a hierarchy. The boss must have authority over the subordinate to have a command relationship (and there must be a hierarchy). Communication from superior to subordinate is a command relationship. Feedback is the communication of the subordinate to his superior.
Centralization: the leader brings demands on himself.
Decentralization: the leader delivers tasks, shares responsibilities.
Management deals with people ! The leadership role is essentially a human role and is concerned with managing people. In this role, people’s efforts are recruited, actions are adjusted.
The management function represents putting into practice what is planned and organized. Once the organization establishes its purpose and its strategies (planning), organizes and allocates resources (organization), it will deal with people.
It involves using influence to motivate people. Management uses the goals and objectives previously described as a guide to achieve results, through actions. Driving is putting into practice what is established.
The administrative management function directs people to the development of their activities. He designates people, directs his efforts, motivates, leads and communicates with people.
Management sets goals and seeks to achieve them. Management implements the end goal in goals.
Key concepts of the management function: motivation, leadership and communication .
Motivation is one of the aspects of the management function. It can also be considered within organizational psychology. Motivation are the causes, reasons and reasons for the direction, intensity and persistence of human behavior in search of results . Thanks to motivation, action is taken: there is a reason to act. The reasons can be intrinsic (eg: physiological needs) or extrinsic (eg: influence of the environment). Motivation is not constant over time nor is it the same for all individuals in all situations.
The address is the route. Persistence is the human ability to superimpose your efforts on any threat that may affect them. Being persistent is being faithful to your goals. Intensity is the degree of effort.
Motivation provokes reaction. There is a connection between stimulus, motivation and reaction, with an impact on the results. The reasons, causes and motives are the genesis of motivation and can be internal or external. Motivation is the answer to these causes; therefore, motivation is not external or internal: motivation is the answer, an internal process, an individual phenomenon! Being able to motivate is difficult for the organization, since it is about individuality: each person responds differently to extrinsic causes. The intrinsic causes come from the human being himself and are related to the satisfaction of achieving a result. The extrinsic causes for motivation are established by the environment and are related to the rewards given by the organization .
Within organizations, motivation is studied, stimulated and controlled, it is intentional. Various strategies are employed to motivate employees and predict behavior.
leadership = influence
Leadership is the ability to influence and depends on the relationship between individuals, from the leader to the followers. Leadership is a process that is carried out through interpersonal communication, with the exercise of influence. Leadership needs people, influence, power, authority and context. Leadership is a social phenomenon that depends on the relationship between people, the ability to influence and the situation.
Leadership ability is related to influence . Influence is getting people to do what they wouldn’t do without the presence of influence and the leader. Influence is what changes behavior. Leader is the person who influences other people and makes them change their behavior.
Leadership is also related to power : power is used to influence people’s behavior. Power (and leadership) occurs in a specific situation. It is important not to confuse leadership (position) with authority or leadership with power. Influence generates leadership; Power is where this leadership takes place. Power (and leadership) can be formal or informal. The power is the ability of one for the other to do something, even if it offers resistance.
Types of power: coercive, reward, competition, charisma, legal justification. The formal powers are related to the position (coercive and reward). Informal powers are related to personal characteristics.
- Coercive Power: Threat, Sanction, Focused on Posts, Post on the post has the authority to exercise power (eg the police).
- Reward Power: Induction, through reward, also focused on position, use of position, and authority to offer reward.
- Competent power: power related to people, association of knowledge, skills and attitudes, there is theoretical and practical knowledge, it is a power inherent in the person and not in the job.
- Charismatic power: the person generates affinity, human interaction; The treatment and the way in which the person treats others influences.
- Rational legal power: emanates from the norm, law, rule, etc.
Dilemma between leadership and leadership: the boss has power derived from the position, his power is formal. The leader makes decisions and influences people because of their informal powers, regardless of their position. Ideal is the leader boss.
Transactional leadership is based on exchange, on incentives, being a more traditional concept.
Transformational leadership seeks to inspire employees, being a more modern concept.
Communication elements: sender (source, speaker), encoding (language), transmitter, message, channel, decoding (interpretation), receiver (listening, decoding the message), noise, feedback (feedback). In communication, there will always be a sender, an encoding process, the message itself, a channel to transmit the message, decode, and a receiver. Feedback and noise are present throughout the communication process. Noises can have a greater or lesser degree, with varied influences on communication; Noise is everything that makes it difficult to understand the message (for example, sound noise, accent, jargon, gestures). All communication presupposes a process of encoding and a process of decoding (understanding); there may be failures in these processes.
The communication process in organizations generates a lot of problems. Communication is a mutual exercise, with the transmission of information from one party to another. The codes must be shared by the sender and receiver. It is a vital aspect for any organization.
Communication barriers : noise ! Noise is any factor that hinders communication, a barrier (physical or not) that hinders the communication process (it does not, but it does). Barriers should be avoided.
Type of barriers: filtering (manipulation of information – issuer); selective perception (listening selective – receptor – interpretation according beliefs); emotions (change the reception of the message); language (differences in age, education, culture, specialty, etc. affect the sending and receiving of the message); overload ( excessive information , more information than the processing capacity of the channel, for example, excessive emails); physical barriers (environmental interference – noise); semantic barriers (distortions in symbols, gestures, signs, religions – noise).
- Personal barriers: linked to feelings; Emotions influence the interpretation of the message. To minimize this type of barrier, more formal language should be used.
- Physical barriers: physical blocking of the message (for example, closed door, low volume sound, poor acoustics).
- Semantic barriers: related to elements from different cultures. Difficulty understanding meanings (eg, gestures).
- Omission: the recipient does not receive the full content of the message; receiver problem
- Distortion and filtering: the issuer filters or distorts the information; emitter problem
- Overload – quite common; It combines the volume of information and the channel used for communication. The channel does not take into account the volume of information. The problem is neither the channel nor the volume; the problem is that both are incompatible, the chosen channel is inappropriate; the channel does not support the volume of information (for example, excessive emails, audios on WhatsApp).
Sender’s barriers (sending the message): use of inappropriate language and symbols, shyness, impatience, inappropriate moment, assumption of knowledge of the recipient.
Barriers to the recipient (reception of the message): lack of attention, impatience, hasty evaluation and judgment, prejudice, distrust of the sender, too much self-confidence and resistance to accept the message.
Barriers in the sender and receiver (sending and receiving the message): little time, little interest, hostility, distortion of the message, cultural differences, distant hierarchical levels.
Efficient communication: generates less use of resources.
Effective communication: the recipient delivers and fully understands the entire message.
Communication channels: the more information a channel can transmit, the richer it will be. Richer: direct conversations; less wealthy: formal reports. The richer channels have instant feedback and can transmit more elements (tone of voice, reactions, etc.). The poorest channels are more impersonal, generally one-way, and have little feedback, but have advantages such as communication logging, detailed planning, and easy dissemination.
Verbal communication uses the word to convey messages. Non-verbal communication uses different aspects of words, such as tone of voice, body language, gestures, etc. Both are essential for good communication.
Two types of communication within organizations: informal and formal. Informal communication: generally orally, faster, more flexible, simpler and less rigorous; linked to affinities; motivates and integrates people; However, it can generate rumors and gossip. Formal communication: occurs according to the hierarchy (vertical or horizontal), obeys rules and regulations; establishes routine and standardization in communications; it can generate excessive bureaucracy. Meanings of formal communication: ascending (subordinate → superior), descending (superior → subordinate) and horizontal (same hierarchical level; lateral). Formal communication follows official rules, considers organizational structures (organizational chart), has rules for construction, issuance and reception.
Circle communication: people communicate with each other (eg, Reunion). Chain: from one level to another. In circles: there is a central axis (eg: presentation, gap year, press conference). All channels: combinations of more than one type of channel.
The control function represents the monitoring, monitoring and evaluation of performance. Its objective is to verify if what was planned, organized and directed achieved the expected result: it must compare the idealized with what has been accomplished. Control is the administrative function of the monitoring activity to keep the organization on track and allow the necessary corrections in case of errors, deviations and failures. The control evaluates the previous processes: planning, organization and management.
The administrative control function supervises and guarantees that the defined objectives are achieved. Monitor activities and correct challenges.
The PODC administrative process has no beginning or end, as it is continuous, but it consists of steps and the monitoring function is the last step in this process. Once control is complete, planning resumes.
Control is the process that, in comparison , based on previously established standards , aims to measure and evaluate the success / failure of policies to feed back the administrative process, with the aim of correcting or reinforcing behavior, perceiving positive deviations and negative (correction or reinforcement / improvement). Control always requires a comparison , between what was planned and what was actually achieved .
Previously established rules : these are the indicators!
Indicators can be qualitative (eg, good or bad); They are more subjective and interpretive.
The indicators can be quantitative (for example, grade, scale), being more objective, numerical.
Main objective of the control function: to measure and evaluate performance!
The control stage fuels new planning. Control → Planning.